Cobots manipulate objects in similar ways to human operators while maintaining safety for nearby workers. The human workers can then increase their throughput by offloading repetitive manual tasks to the easily trainable cobot, focusing their human attention on other process steps. Space-saving tech allows cobots and robots to function at a reasonable size. Frameless motors are stator-rotor pairs in wide, concentric rings, which allow wires and other components to pass through the center of systems. Robotic gearboxes achieve high ratios in a small package, and a common technology for this is the harmonic or strain-wave gearbox. Full automation of 3-D motion can also be achieved using gantry solutions, as is the case in 3-D printers.